Purpose To investigate the effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on radial peripapillary capillary vessel density (RPCvd) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods Forty patients with IDA, and 46 healthy participants, were enrolled in this study. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used to determine RNFL thickness and RPCvd measurements. In addition, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and ferritin laboratory values were evaluated. Results Analysis of retinal regions (whole images, peripapillary, superior-hemi, inferior-hemi, inferior-nasal, inferior-temporal, temporal-inferior, temporal-superior, superior-nasal) showed that RPCvd values were significantly lower in patients with IDA compared to the control group values (p??0.05 for all). In addition, there were significant positive correlations between RPCvd values and hematological values for Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and ferritin. Conclusion It is important to identify changes in retinal vascularity to prevent possible ocular problems in patients with IDA. Specifically, the significant positive correlations between RPCvd values and hematological values suggest that anemia treatment is important for optic nerve perfusion.